Posted: Tuesday, January 26, 2016 – 11:22 AM
(Reuters) – U.S. health officials on Tuesday issued interim guidelines for health care professionals in the United States caring for infants born to mothers who traveled or lived in an area with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy.
The guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention call for pediatricians to work closely with obstetricians caring for pregnant women exposed to the virus during pregnancy, monitoring fetal ultrasounds and testing infants with signs of a birth defect called microcephaly marked by small head size.
The guidelines come after thousands of infants in Brazil were born with microcephaly, which was believed to be linked to Zika infections. In studies of the current outbreak in Brazil, genetic material from the Zika virus has been identified in studies of brain tissue, placenta and amniotic fluid from several infants with microcephaly and from miscarried fetuses from women infected with the virus.
Although Zika transmission has not yet been reported in the United States, mosquitoes that carry the infection are endemic to specific regions of the United States, and experts believe transmission is likely in the coming months as the weather heats up.
In the interim guidelines for pediatricians, the CDC recommends that infants with microcephaly born to women exposed to Zika while pregnant should be tested for the virus. For infants without microcephaly but whose mothers received a positive or inconclusive test for the virus, the guidelines call for the child to be tested for possible Zika infection.
The guidance also informs U.S. doctors that Zika is a nationally notifiable condition, meaning that suspected cases must be reported to state and territorial health departments.
No treatments or vaccines are available for Zika infections.
(Reuters) – U.S. health officials are stepping up efforts to study the link between Zika virus infections and birth defects in infants amid predictions for widespread circulation of the mosquito-borne virus within the United States during warmer months.
The U.S. Director of the National Institutes of Health on Tuesday called for intensified efforts to study the impact of Zika infections, citing a recent study estimating the virus could reach regions where 60 percent of the U.S. population lives.
The mosquito-borne virus has been linked to brain damage in thousands of babies in Brazil. There is no vaccine or treatment for Zika, a close cousin of dengue and chikungunya, which causes mild fever and rash. An estimated 80 percent of people infected have no symptoms, making it difficult for pregnant women to know whether they have been infected.
On Monday, the World Health Organization predicted the virus would spread to all countries across the Americas except for Canada and Chile.
In a blog post, NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins cited a Lancet study published Jan. 14 in which researchers predicted the Zika virus could be spread in areas along the East and West Coasts of the United States and much of the Midwest during warmer months, where about 200 million people live.
The study also showed that another 22.7 million people live in humid parts of the country where mosquitoes carrying the virus could live year round.
Given the threat, Collins said “it is now critically important to confirm, through careful epidemiological and animal studies, whether or not a causal link exists between Zika virus infections in pregnant women and microcephaly in their newborn babies.” Microcephaly results in babies being born with abnormally small heads.
Experts say there is still much to learn about Zika infections. For example, it is not clear how common Zika infections are in pregnant women, or when during a pregnancy a woman is most at risk of transmitting the virus to her fetus.
Collins said the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease is conducting studies to more fully understand the effects of Zika in humans, and to develop better diagnostic tests to quickly determine if someone has been infected. The NIAID is also working on testing new drugs that might be effective against the virus.
The blog post was followed by the announcement on Tuesday of new guidelines from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention providing instructions for pediatricians treating infants whose mothers may have been exposed to the virus during pregnancy.
In those guidelines, the CDC makes clear that Zika virus is considered a nationally notifiable condition, and instructs doctors to contact their state or territorial health departments to facilitate testing of potentially infected infants.
The guidelines for the care of infants affected by Zika infections follows CDC guidelines for caring for pregnant women exposed to Zika virus, which were first reported by Reuters. The CDC said last week it is trying to determine how many pregnant women may have traveled to affected regions in the past several months.